The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa is one of the leading scientific and technology research, development and implementation organisations in Africa. It undertakes directed research and development for socio-economic growth.
Lenses are well-understood optical instruments to focus light. The flame lens realised by CSIR researchers offers light focusing with a damage threshold several orders of magnitude higher than that of most conventional lenses.
Late in February, the CSIR hosted the Upper Olifants River Study Key Stakeholder Workshop to present technical research outputs relevant to remediation and restoration of the Upper Olifants River catchment.
Sections of the upper Olifants River catchment are highly contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic micro-organisms that pose an unacceptably high risk to water users within this catchment, a CSIR microbial study has shown. Extreme levels of faecal pollution could, in most instances, be traced back to inadequate wastewater treatment.
The magnitude and cost of food waste in South Africa